July 24 – The anniversary of the Menin Gate Memorial, Ypres

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Today is the anniversary of the unveiling of the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial in 1927; the origin of the daily Act of Remembrance; some names from Northern Ireland which are engraved on it including that of the first MP to be killed in WW1.

On 24 July 1927 the unveiling of the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial featured in one of the first ever BBC outside broadcasts. The official opening by Lord Plumer, took place in the presence of the King of the Belgians. The event attracted millions of listeners as people were able to mass participate in a ceremony for the first time. The chaplain looks very like the Reverend E H Thorold who became Chaplain-General in 1931.

The In Flanders Fields Museum at Ypres estimates that almost 100,000 British Empire soldiers were killed in the Flanders campaign of 1917 which lasted from June 1st to November 17th.

Of the 99,253 men who died, almost 5,000 (4,901) were Irish or from Irish regiments.
The overall total of dead at Passchendaele number at least 150,000 including 43,154 confirmed German dead with between 10,000 and 15,000 still unaccouted for.

The worst day for the Irish at Passchendaele was August 16th, 1917. The 16th (Irish) Division and 36th (Ulster) Division suffered almost 1,200 dead between them in the doomed assault at Frezenberg Ridge.

The name of Menin came home to Northern Ireland after the war and influenced the very street names. For example, in Antrim there are housing areas which were built specifically for returning veterans and their families. Two such are titled the Menin Road and the Bourlon Road.

The unveiling of CWGC’s Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial on 24 July 1927

The dedication of the memorial gate and the public reaction to it was described by a Belfast newspaper on 11 November 1927 as “A Gate of Death and Glory”


The newspaper commented:

“Many monuments have been raised in various parts of the world to the honour of our Glorious Dead, but none has stirred the heart and gripped the imagination of the public in the same degree as the Menin Gate Arch; and to its noble “Hall of Memory,” hallowed with the names of 56,000 British heroes, the thoughts of countless bereaved will be concentrated during the two minutes’ solemn silence. Since the official opening by Lord Plumer, in the presence of the King of the Belgians, on 24th July last, there has been a constant stream of British pilgrims to this beautiful memorial. By train, charabanc and private car, people have poured into Ypres. The signatures on the visitors’ book have averaged 500 a day, that number probably representing about one-third of the total who have made the journey.

“In itself, of course, Menin Gate is not historic in the sense that the scenes of actual fighting a few miles away are historic, save for the fact that it was the focal point in that colossal waste of mangled desolation. It may be said that practically every soldier who fought in the defence of Ypres must at one time or other have passed   through its narrow portals. Those who survived have been rewarded by the knowledge that their heroic efforts contributed to victory and kept us a free people, but to thousands, nay, tens of thousands, Menin was the gate of death.

“Many gallant lads marched through it to the rolling ground  that leads to Hooge, strong, reliant and fearless in their manhood, never to  return; or perchance to crawl falteringly back helpless wrecks, gasping  and choking with poison gas slowly destroying their lungs, until, their strength completely sapped, they fell exhausted, only to die alone on the roadside. Alas! too frequently in the hateful mud and water-logged ground, churned up on every side by shell-fire, their identities were lost  with their lives; and no man knows their grave to this day.”

Former North Irish Horse named at Menin

Samuel McCullagh Linden was born on 30 September 1891 at Hackballs Cross, County Louth, the only child of RIC constable Robert Linden and his wife Elizabeth (formerly Baird). Linden studied theology at Trinity College, Dublin, and from 1910 to 1913 served in the university’s Officer Training Corps.

In November 1915 he was awarded a testimonial on vellum by the Royal Humane Society for having, “on 19th July last rescued two girls from 12 feet of water at Catlerock, County Derry.” (Belfast News-Letter 25 September 1915).

Linden enlisted in the North Irish Horse at Dublin on 25 February 1916 (No.2123), joining the regiment at Antrim on 4 March, where he was posted to H Squadron.

On 24 April 1916 he married Florence Elizabeth Neill at Templemore, Londonderry. Their son Robert Desmond was born on 28 January 1917.

Linden applied for a commission in the artillery or infantry on 1 August 1916. He was posted as a cadet gunner to B Reserve Brigade of the Royal Horse Artillery at St John’s Wood, London, on 9 November, and was commissioned as a 2nd lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery on 20 January the following year.

On 28 April 1917 he embarked for France as part of 323 Siege Battery. The following month he was posted to the 90th Brigade, Royal Garrison Artillery (90th Heavy Artillery Group), which had arrived in France at the beginning of April and was on the Ypres front.

Linden was killed in action at Vlamertinghe on 31 July 1917 – the first day of the Third Battle of Ypres. Linden’s body was buried in the Vlamertinghe New Military Cemetery, Plot 5, Row G, No.16, and marked with a cross. After the war when the cemetery was checked for graves, there was no sign of it. It is believed that the site had been subjected to shellfire and many graves destroyed.

There is also a memorial to him in Clonallan Church of Ireland Churchyard, County Down. It reads: In loving memory of Elizabeth wife of Robert Linden, died 5th January 1934 also of their son Samuel Linden BA, Mentioned in Despatches, Killed in action 31st July 1917 at Ypres.

William Hanna Adams was born on 3 March 1885 at Gate End, Ballymoney, son of labourer John Adams and his wife Sarah (formerly Workman). The family moved to Belfast around 1890.
On 25 November 1908 he married factory worker Maggie Wilson Ross at Coleraine. His occupation at the time was coachman.

Adams enlisted in the North Irish Horse at Antrim in June or July 1915 (No.1700).

At the end of December 1916 he was one of forty North Irish Horsemen who transferred to the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (No.40635). They embarked for France on 9 January 1917 and were posted to the 10th Battalion, joining it at Ploegsteert Wood on the Ypres front. Adams was posted to B Company.

On 8 August 1917 Adams was killed in action during the opening phase of the Third Battle of Ypres. The battalion war diary for the day reads:

The enemy at intervals shelled the front line & supports … The shells are mostly H.E. of large calibre, with a good few shrapnel and armour piercing shells. The total casualties, including last nights are:- 2 Other Ranks killed, 24 O.Rs. gassed and 18 O.Rs. wounded. “B” Company suffered very heavily in casualties.

As he has no known grave, Corporal Adams is commemorated on the Menim Gate Panel 22.
Edward Lennox was born on 11 December 1896 at Moynock, Kilrea, County Londonderry, son of farmer Robert Lennox and his wife Jane Lennox (formerly Lennox).

Around April 1916 at Kilrea he enlisted in the cavalry (Hussars No.24918) and after spending some time at the cavalry reserve at the Curragh, was posted to the North Irish Horse at Antrim.

In December 1916 Lennox volunteered to transfer to the Royal Irish Rifles (No.40953). Initially posted to the 1st Battalion, in January 1917 he was posted to the 2nd Battalion and embarked for France.

On 10 August 1917 he was killed in action during the attack on Westhoek, part of the Third Battle of Ypres.

Having no known grave, he is commemorated on the Menim Gate, Panel 40.

James Talbot was born (named William James) on 27 March 1894 at Drumgarkin, Cootehill, Monaghan, son of farmer William Talbot and his wife Ellen (formerly Coulson). He grew up at his family’s farm at Corbeagh, Ashfield, County Cavan.

Talbot enlisted in the North Irish Horse at Armagh in June or July 1916 (No.2208).

At the end of December 1916 he was one of forty North Irish Horsemen who transferred to the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (No.40667). They embarked for France on 9 January 1917 and were posted to the 10th Battalion, joining it at Ploegsteert Wood on the Ypres front.

Talbot was killed in action on 7 June 1917 during the Battle of Messines. As he has no known grave he is commemorated on the Menim Gate, Panel 22.

First MP to be killed in First World War

On the Gate in Panel 3 is the name of Captain the Honourable Arthur Edward Bruce O’Neill, 2nd Life Guards, Member of Parliament for Mid-Antrim and the first MP to be killed during the First World War. Born on 09/09/1876 he was killed on 06/11/1914 aged, 38. O’Neill was the second but eldest surviving son of Edward O’Neill, 2nd Baron O’Neill, and his wife Lady Louisa Katherine Emma (née Cochrane). Hugh O’Neill, later Baron Rathcavan, was his younger brother.

O’Neill joined the Army in 1897. He saw active service in South Africa between 1899 and 1900, during the Second Boer War. He was awarded the Queen’s South Africa Medal with three clasps. In January 1902, he was temporary appointed Adjutant to the 2nd Regiment of Life Guards. O’Neill fought in the First World War as a Captain in the 2nd Life Guards and was killed in action at Klein Zillebekeridge. O’Neill is also commemorated on Panel 8 of the Parliamentary War Memorial in Westminster Hall, one of 22 MPs that died during World War I to be named on that memorial.O’Neill is one of 19 MPs who fell in the war who are commemorated by heraldic shields in the Commons Chamber.

A further act of commemoration came with the unveiling in 1932 of a manuscript-style illuminated book of remembrance for the House of Commons, which includes a short biographical account of the life and death of O’Neill. He was elected to the House of Commons for Mid-Antrim in 1910, succeeding his uncle Robert Torrens O’Neill. His brother Hugh succeeded him as MP for Mid-Antrim.

O’Neill married, at St Paul’s Church, Knightsbridge, on 21 January 1902, Lady Annabel Crewe-Milnes, daughter of the Marquess of Crewe. The Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, performed the ceremony. Lady Annabel O’Neill later remarried and died in 1948.

O’Neill and his wife had five children; three boys and two girls. Their youngest child, Terence, was less than two months old at the time of his father’s death. Their eldest son Shane succeeded his grandfather in the barony in 1928, while their third son Terence O’Neill was Prime Minister of Northern Ireland between 1963 and 1969.

The Pipes and Drums of the Royal Irish Regiment marching through the Menin Gate

Belfast names on the Menin Gate

The Roll which follows is extracted from Belfast newspapers, of 11th November, 1927

ROYAL IRISH RIFLES
The names of the men of the Royal Irish Rifles are recorded on Panel 33.

ADAIR, R. J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Brussels Street, Belfast.

ATKINSON, M., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Mersey, Street, Belfast.

ATKINSON, T., Lance-Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Blaney, Street, Belfast.

BARKER, G., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Roundhill Street, M’pottinger, Belfast.

BEST, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Ghent Street, Belfast.

BROWNE, A. V., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Argyle Street, Belfast.

BURNS, W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Knockbreda Road, Cregagh, Belfast.

CAMPBELL, C., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Surrey Street, Belfast.

CAMPBELL, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, King’s Road, Knock, Belfast.

CARLISLE, D., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Bristol Street, Belfast.

CLARKE,  C., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Little Charlotte Street, Belfast.

COATES, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Argyle Street, Belfast.

COLLIER, D., Company-Sergeant-Major, Royal Irish Rifles, Belvoir Street, Belfast.

COLLINS, H., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Pernan Street, Belfast.

COTTER, W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Copperfield Street, Belfast.

DICKEY,J., Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Davton Street, Belfast.

DUNNE, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Steen’s Row, Belfast.

ELLIOTT, C., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Disraeli Street, Belfast.

ELLIS, W., Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, St. Kilda Street, Belfast.

FERRIS, S., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Crumlin Road, Ballysillan, Belfast.

FINN, W. J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Paris Street, Belfast.

FITZSIMMONS, P., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Raphael Street, Belfast.

FLYNN, W. G. A., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Glenbank, Ballysillan, Belfast.

FRAZER, W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Northumberland Street, Belfast.

GRAHAM, R. H., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Lisburn Avenue, Belfast.

HAMILTON, H., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Moat Street, Donaghadee.

HARVEY, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Weir Street, Belfast.

HEANEY, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, McQuillan Street, Belfast.

HENDERSON, W. A., Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Eighth Street, Belfast.

HUGHES, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Moscow Street, Belfast.

JENKINS, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Ninon Street, Belfast.

JOHNSTON, H., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Carew Street, Ballymacarrett.

KENNEDY, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Frederick Place, Belfast.

KENNEDY, W. W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Island Street, Belfast.

KING, S., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Eighth Street, Belfast.

LOUGHLIN, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Clandeboye Street, Belfast.

LYNAS, W., Lance-Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Malvern Street, Belfast.

M’CAFFREY, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, College Street, Belfast.

M’CALLUM, J., Sergeant, Royal Irish Rifles, Pevril Street, Belfast.

M’CANLEY, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Hill Street, Dunmurry.

M’CARTHEY J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Mashona Street, Belfast.

M’CLELLAND, W. J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Bann Street, Belfast.

M’CLURG, W., Lance-Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Urney Street, Belfast.

M’COMB, W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, North Howard Street, Belfast.

M’CRORY, H., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Urney Street, Belfast.

M’CULLOUGH, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Agincourt Avenue, Belfast.

M’DONALD, D., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Tomb Street, Belfast.

M’FALL, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, MillRoad, Whitehouse.

M’FARLAND, G., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Rosebery Street, Connswater.

M’KEE, W. D., Lieutenant, Royal Irish Rifles, Cyprus Park, Bloomfield.

M’KENZIE, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Convention Street, Belfast.

M’KEOWN, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Conlon Street, Belfast.

M’LEAN, R. G., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Fortuna Street, Belfast.

M’REAVIE, W. J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Weir Street, Belfast.

MILLAR, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Harrison Street, Belfast.

MOAN, J. L., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Anderson Street, Belfast.

MORGAN, G., Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Chamberland Street, Belfast.

MULLAN, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Genoa Street, Belfast.

MURRAY, H., Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Seaforde Street, Belfast.

NAPIER, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Beersbridge Road, Belfast.

NEILL, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, The Lane, Whitehouse.

NELSON, R., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Dickson Street, Belfast.

O’DONOHOE, P. J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Waterford Street, Belfast.

O’RORKE, T., Sergeant, Royal Irish Rifles, Osman Street, Belfast.

ORR, W., Sergeant, Royal Irish Rifles, Belvoir Street, Belfast.

PARRY, W., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Upper Canning Street, Belfast.

PATTON, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Douglas Street, Belfast.

PHAIR, G., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Laganvale Street, Belfast.

POLLAN, R. K., 2nd Lieutenant, Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Taunton Avenue, Belfast.

RIDDELL, J., Lance-Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Bathurst Court, Belfast.

SMYTH I., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, James Street, Belfast.

SOMERVILLE, G., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, St. Leonard’s Street, Belfast.

STEWART, T., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Brownlow Street, Belfast.

STUART, D., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Alexander Street, Belfast.

TORRANS, S., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Schumberg Street, Belfast.

TURLEY, J., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Cyprus Street, Belfast.

WALSH, T., Lance-Corporal, Royal Irish Rifles, Gilbert Street, Belfast.

WILKINSON, K., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Belfast.

WILLIAMSON, F., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Kendal Street, Belfast.

WILSON, J., (6072) Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Tyrone Street, Belfast.

WILSON J., (13878) M.M., Rifleman, Royal Irish Rifles, Linwood Street, Belfast.

ROYAL INNISKILLING FUSILIERS

CAMPBELL, H., Private, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Ewart’s Row, Belfast

CLINTON, J., Private, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Oswald Street,
 Belfast

CUPPLES, W., Captain, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Malone Avenue, Belfast

DALY, J. J., Private, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Herbert Street, Belfast

GORDON, W., Corporal, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Ottawa Street, Belfast

KENNEDY, W. E., Company-Sgt-Major, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Derlett Street.

NORNEY, T. J., (M.M.) Private, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Millfield, Belfast

ROSBOTHAM, S., Corporal, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, Woodvale Avenue, Belfast

ROYAL IRISH FUSILIERS

ANDERSON, W., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Lesson Street, Belfast

CHEYNE, E. E., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, M’Clure Street, Belfast

COOKE, C. E., 2nd Lieutenant, Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Nottinghill House, Belfast

COPELAND, J., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Sheriff Street, Belfast

CORRIGAN, P., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Cullingtree Street, Belfast

CRANGLE, J., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Ardenlee Avenue, Belfast

CUNNINGHAM, W., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Athens Street, Belfast

DEMPSTER, S., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Montreal Street, Belfast

FITZSIMONS, C., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Grosvenor Place, Belfast

HUMPHREYS, W., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Ottawa Street, Belfast

HYDE, J., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Bentham Street, Belfast

KERTLAND, E. B., 2nd Lieutenant, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Knockdene Park, Belfast

KIRK, F., Sergeant, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Euston Street, Belfast

M’CREA, A., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Little Patrick Street, Belfast

M’CREADY, D., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Templemore Street, Belfast

M’MEEKAN, W., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Bentham Street, Belfast

MILLAR, A. J., Captain, Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Eglantine Avenue, Belfast

O’HAGAN, J., Company-Sergeant-Major, Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Frederick Street, Belfast

RAFFERTY, W. J., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Lower Clonard Street, Falls Road, Belfast

MILLAR, A. J., Captain, Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Eglantine Avenue, Belfast

O’HAGAN, J., Company-Sergeant-Major, Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Frederick Street, Belfast

RAFFERTY, W. J., Private, Royal Irish Fusiliers, Lower Clonard Street, Falls Road, Belfast

OTHER  REGIMENTS

ALLMAN, G., Corporal, Cheshire Regt. Leopold Street, Belfast

BRIEN, J., Private Royal Scots Fusiliers, Colinward Street, Belfast

DICKSON, R. A., 2nd Lieutenant, Royal Irish Regiment, Stranmillis Road, Belfast

DONNELLY, J., Private, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, Spring View, Belfast

DUNWOODY, R. A., Private Irish Guards, Gaffikin Street, Belfast

EDWARDS, J., Private, Army Cyclist Corps, Lepper Street, Belfast

FAUSSET, S. S., Lieutenant, King’s Liverpool Regiment, Chichester Avenue, Belfast

FENNING, T., Private Irish Guards, Northumberland Street, Belfast

GILL, D. L., Private, 11th Hussars, Westmoreland Street, Belfast

GORDON, G., Lieutenant, 12th Lancers, Rosemary Street, Belfast

HAMILTON-TEMPLE-BLACKWOOD, Lord B. G. T., Lieutenant, Grenadier Guards, Clandeboye, County Down

HANDS, R., Private, Royal Lancaster Regiment, Westland Street, Belfast

HANLON, T., Private Royal Munster Fusiliers, Kilronan Street, Belfast

HOGAN, W. E., Sergeant, Cheshire Regiment, Beersbridge Street, Belfast

HOWIE, W., Private, Irish Guards, Jerusalem Street, Belfast

LAUGHLIN, W. D., Private, Irish Guards, Shankill Road, Belfast

LEARY, J., Private, Cheshire Regiment, Duffy Street, Belfast

LENNOX, A., Lance-Corporal, East Lancashire Regiment, Matilda Street, Belfast

M’CREADY, D., Private, King’s Liverpool Regiment, Templemore Street, Belfast

M’KEE, W., Private, Seaforth Highlanders, Avoneil Street, Belfast

M’MANUS, T., Private, Royal Dublin Fusiliers, Rugby Avenue, Belfast

M’MILLAN, R., Private, Irish Guards, Convention Street, Belfast

MALONEY, W. A., 2nd Lieutenant, Cheshire Regiment, Fortwilliam Park, Belfast

MULHOLLAND, W. P., Private, Irish Guards, Cavendish Street, Belfast

PRENTER, J., Private, King’s Shropshire Light Infantry, Sungville Street, Belfast

RAMSAY,T. L., Private, Cameron Highlanders, Harrybrook Street, Belfast

SELBY, W. A., Private, Royal Sussex Regiment, Sixth Street, Belfast

SEYMOUR, S. H., Private, Machine Gun Corps, Blackwood Street, Belfast

SKELLY, S., Private, Inniskilling Dragoons, Farnham Street, Belfast

STEELE, A., Private, North Lancashire Regiment, Isabella Street, Belfast

TODD, H. E., (M.M.), Private, Yorkshire Regiment, Andersonstown,

YOUNG, J., Private, Dragoon Guards, Westbourne Street, Belfast

Every night at 8.00pm a moving ceremony takes place under the Menin Gate in Ypres.

The Last Post Ceremony has become part of the daily life in Ypres and the local people are proud of this simple but moving tribute to the courage and self-sacrifice of those who fell in defence of their town.

In 1928, a year after the inauguration of the Menin Gate Memorial, a number of prominent citizens in Ypres decided that some way should be found to express the gratitude of the Belgian nation towards those who had died for its freedom and independence.

The idea of the daily sounding of the Last Post – the traditional salute to the fallen warrior – was that of the Superintendent of the Ypres Police, Mr P Vandenbraambussche. The Menin Gate Memorial on the east side of Ypres was thought to be the most appropriate location for the ceremony.

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